Cutting fluids are used in cutting and grinding operations primarily to control temperature build-up by providing cooling and lubrication. Secondary functions include:
a) Removing swarf and dust.
b) Lubrication of other parts of machinery such as slideways and screws.
c) General corrosion protection of the workpiece and exposed metal parts of the machine tool.
Two basic classes of cutting flluids are used in the metalworking industry:
1) Straight Cutting Oils, based on mineral oil and used for the metal cutting without further dilution. They are generally blends of mineral oils and other additives.
2) Water-based Cutting Fluids: The cutting fluid is supplied as a concentrate and mixed on site with water as required. Water-based cutting fluids fall into three types.
a) Emulsion oil
b) Semi-synthetic fiuids
c) Synthetic fluids